Abscopal effects induced by localized interventions in oncological patients
Abscopal, or out-of-fields effects were reported among a number of oncological patients, who were treated with radiation therapy in combination with immune checkpoints inhibitors. The radiations induce a localized immunogenic cell death within the malignant tissues of the irradiated area. Necro-apoptotic cancer cells, in turn, stimulate tumor-specific immune responses in oncological patients, who were previously treated with immune checkpoints inhibitors. Consequently, the host immune system is able to target malignant cells that are present in various parts of the organism. Similar findings were observed in cancer immunotherapy clinical trials that combined immune checkpoints inhibitors with oncolytic viruses, immunomodulatory agents and chemotherapeutics, whereas some clinical trials are underway to combine immune checkpoints with focused ultrasound techniques. Clinical studies are currently in progress to increase the frequency and the efficacy of abscopal effects among oncological patients.
This article covers the most recent findings in the field of oncology. Immune checkpoints inhibitors have been utilized in clinical trials in combination with therapeutic agents that induce traumatic cell death in malignant tissues, which, in turn, may result\s in system immune responses against the tumor.